Although shared memory permits any process with the appropriate permissions to read or write a shared memory region directly, it is very fragile—leading to the dangers of data corruption and security breaches—and should be used with care. It is best used only as a repository for raw data such as pixels or audio , with the controlling data structures accessed through more conventional interprocess communication.
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Apple event. An Apple event is a high-level semantic event that an app can send to itself, to other apps on the same computer, or to apps on a remote computer. Apps can use Apple events to request services and information from other apps. To supply services, you define objects in your app that can be accessed using Apple events and then provide Apple event handlers to respond to requests for those objects.
Macintosh operating systems
Although Apple events are not a BSD technology, they are a low-level alternative for interprocess communication. OS X is one of the premier platforms for computing in an interconnected world. It supports the dominant media types, protocols, and services in the industry, as well as differentiated and innovative services from Apple. The extensible architecture provided by network kernel extensions, summarized in Network Kernel Extensions , facilitates the creation of modules implementing new or existing protocols that can be added to this stack.
OS X provides built-in support for a large number of network protocols that are standard in the computing industry. Table summarizes these protocols. The Hypertext Transport Protocol is the standard protocol for transferring webpages between a web server and browser. OS X provides support for both the insecure and secure versions of the protocol.
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol lets users locate groups, individuals, and resources such as files and devices in a network, whether on the Internet or on a corporate intranet. The Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet protocol provides an Ethernet-based dial-up connection for broadband users. Service Location Protocol is designed for the automatic discovery of resources servers, fax machines, and so on on an IP network.
The Simple Object Access Protocol is a lightweight protocol for exchanging encapsulated messages over the web or other networks.
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The Secure Shell protocol is a safe way to perform a remote login to another computer. Session information is encrypted to prevent unauthorized access of data. OS X also implements a number of file-sharing protocols; see Table for a summary of these protocols. Also known as Gigabit Ethernet.
For data transmission over fiber-optic cable and standardized copper wiring. This Ethernet format uses 9 KB frames for interserver links rather than the standard 1. Jumbo Frame decreases network overhead and increases the flow of server-to-server and server-to-app data.
Supports the IP routing provides routing services for small networks. Enables a computer host to be physically connected to multiple data links that can be on the same or different networks. See Bonjour.
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Allows computers to share a single System folder, which is installed on a centralized server that the system administrator controls. Users store their data in home directories on the server and have access to a common Applications folder, both of which are also commonly installed on the server.
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Allows users to share information with other users on an intranet, no matter what type of computer or browser they are using. Network diagnostics is a way of helping the user solve network problems. Although modern networks are generally reliable, there are still times when network services may fail.
The network diagnostics feature provides a diagnostic app to help the user locate problems and correct them. If your app encounters a network error, you can use the diagnostic interfaces of CFNetwork to launch the diagnostic app and attempt to solve the problem interactively. You can also choose to report diagnostic problems to the user without attempting to solve them.
For more information on using this feature, see Using Network Diagnostics. The file-system component includes the following features:. Permissions on removable media. This feature is based on a globally unique ID registered for each connected removable device including USB and FireWire devices in the system. URL-based volume mounts, which enable users via a Finder command to mount such things as AppleShare and web servers. Because of its multiple app environments and the various kinds of devices it supports, OS X handles file data in many standard volume formats.
Table lists the supported formats. This is the default root and booting volume format in OS X. This extended version of HFS optimizes the storage capacity of large hard disks by decreasing the minimum size of a single file. Also called hierarchical file system, or HFS. You can find the UDF specification at http: Although an alias and a symbolic link are both lightweight references to a file or directory elsewhere in the file system, they are semantically different in significant ways.
Because OS X is intended to be deployed in heterogeneous networks, it also supports several network file-sharing protocols. Table lists these protocols. The roots of OS X in the UNIX operating system provide a robust and secure computing environment whose track record extends back many decades. BSD is a form of the UNIX operating system that provides basic security for fundamental services, such as file and network access.
The CommonCrypto library, which is part of libSystem , provides raw cryptographic algorithms. It is intended to replace similar OpenSSL interfaces. Adoption of Mandatory Access Control, which provides a fine-grained security architecture for controlling the execution of processes at the kernel level.
Support for code signing and installer package signing. This feature lets the system validate apps using a digital signature and warn the user if an app is tampered with. Compiler support for fortifying your source code against potential security threats. This support includes options to disallow the execution of code located on the stack or other portions of memory containing data. Support for putting unknown files into quarantine. This is especially useful for developers of web browsers or other network-based apps that receive files from unknown sources.
The system prevents access to quarantined files unless the user explicitly approves that access. Darwin includes all of the scripting languages commonly found in UNIX-based operating systems. In addition to the scripting languages associated with command-line shells such as bash and csh , Darwin also includes support for Perl, Python, Ruby, Ruby on Rails, and others.
These bridges let you use Cocoa classes from within your Python and Ruby scripts. OS X provides full support for creating multiple preemptive threads of execution inside a single process. Threads let your program perform multiple tasks in parallel. For example, you might create a thread to perform some lengthy calculations in the background while a separate thread responds to user events and updates the windows in your app.
Using multiple threads can often lead to significant performance improvements in your app, especially on computers with multiple CPU cores. Multithreaded programming is not without its dangers though. A pthread is a lightweight wrapper around a Mach thread, which is the kernel implementation of a thread. You can use the pthreads API directly or use any of the threading packages offered by Cocoa.
Although each threading package offers a different combination of flexibility versus ease-of-use, all packages offer roughly the same performance.
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